Contoh Makalah Bahasa Ingris

Contoh Makalah
Bahasa Inggris
Berikut ini adalah
posting tentang
Contoh Makalah
Bahasa Inggris
dengan judul "LOVE
An Approach to the
Teaching of
Indonesian as a
Foreign Language"
yang disusun oleh
Prof. Burhanuddin
Arafah, M.Hum., Ph.D.
(Fakultas Ilmu
Budaya, Universitas
Hasanuddin / UNHAS).
sebelumnya, Contoh
Makalah Bahasa
An Approach to the
Teaching of
Indonesian as a
Foreign Language
Presented at Korean
Association of
Foreign Language
Education (KAFLE)
Conference on 15
September 2012 in
South Korea
Prof. Burhanuddin
Arafah, M.Hum., Ph.D.
Faculty of Cultural
Sciences, Hasanuddin
University (UNHAS)
Indonesia 90245
Tel./Fax: (+62 411)
587223, E-mail:
The teaching of
Indonesian as a
foreign language is
sometimes felt
uninteresting and
ineffective due to a
number of reasons.
One of the significant
reasons is the
strategy or approach
applied by teachers
is not sophisticated.
As a result, students
are easily bored with
the material
presented by
teachers, and
teachers are usually
frustrated with
students’ inability
to understand the
teaching materials in
their classes. This
paper presents an
approach called Love
and Smile Teaching
that is believed to be
accurate and
efficient for teachers
to solve the said
problems. Through
LOVE (Loyal, Open-
hearted, Versed,
Educated), and SMILE
Motivator, Initiator,
Leader, Entertainer),
teachers are
expected to be loyal,
open-hearted, and
versed educators in
teaching, and
students are kindly
hoped to enjoy the
process as they
should regard their
teachers as excellent
Initiators, Leaders,
and Entertainers.
This paper also
presents effective
strategies for the
teaching Indonesian
as a foreign
Key words: love and
smile, teaching,
strategy, effective
and efficient.
Basically, teaching is
understood as a
profession that can
produce something
great when the
methods and ideas
are correctly and
accurately presented
and implemented in
the classroom. The
purpose of teaching
generally lies in
getting students to
truly understand the
concepts and
methods being
taught. Teaching is
also known as a
series of activities
organized to support
the learning process.
Learning, according
to some experts, is
acquiring new, or
modifying existing,
behaviors, skills,
values, or
preferences and may
involve synthesizing
different types of
Learning is a
process, rather than
a collection of
factual and
Teaching is the main
activity of teachers,
and learning is an
obligatory activity of
students. Meanwhile,
teaching material is
a medium of
process. These three
teacher, student, and
material—are major
components of
Several experts
point out that
teaching is a
knowledge transfer
process. Teacher is
the subject,
whereas, the
student is the object.
This idea implies that
the target of
learning is that the
students can get
information or
knowledge from
their learning
activities Therefore,
in the teaching-
learning process, the
teachers are mostly
active and the
students are usually
passive. The
teachers explain or
describe the topic
and the students are
hoped to understand
it. This is generally
known as a Teacher
Centered Learning
(TCL) method.
Other experts
believe that teaching
is an organizing
activity in the
learning process. The
learning process has
to be organized in
order to be effective
in transferring
knowledge. The
target of learning is
how to make a good
classroom situation
so that the students
can enjoy their
learning activities.
The students have to
be active, and the
teachers fill their
roles as good
motivators and
facilitators. This is
commonly called
Student Centered
Learning (SCL)
In the learning-
teaching process,
especially in teaching
Indonesian as a
foreign language,
both the TCL and SCL
methods have been
regarded very
important methods
in many classroom
activities at higher
education level in
Indonesia. They
always frame any
discussions of
language teaching-
learning activities.
They are sometimes
seen as in conflict,
and sometimes as
Each of these ideas
has had its
defenders in the
course of Indonesian
language learning
and teaching
activities. The
learning and
teaching experts
have emphasized
first one, and then
the other, as the
most marked
teaching methods
that arose in many
higher institutions in
However, based on
the learning and
teaching process
conducted at BIPA
(Bahasa Indonesia
untuk Penutur Asing)
or Indonesian as a
Foreign Language
Program at the
Faculty of Cultural
Sciences of UNHAS in
Indonesia, the two
methods have been
found less effective
and inefficient to
improve the
understanding of
Indonesian language
learners (students)
toward the materials
taught in the
Therefore, this paper
would like to
introduce an
approach called LOVE
in teaching
Indonesian as a
foreign language.
This approach tries
to combine the said
two concepts where
in the learning-
teaching process
both the teachers
and the students are
enticed or convinced
to be more active in
order that the
process is interesting
and effective.
The term Love and
Smile Teaching is
actually an acronym
of the following
L Loyal and
O Open-hearted and
V Versed and
E Educated and
S Supervisor
M Motivator
I Initiator
L Leader
E Entertainer
T Train
E Evaluate
A Abbreviate
C Concentrate
H Harmonize
I Interest
N Negotiate
G Gain
The idea lies in the
word LOVE is that
the teachers of
Indonesian language
have to be Loyal and
Lovable, Open-
hearted and
Optimistic, Versed
and Viable, as well as
Educated and
Easygoing when
teaching their
materials. The word
SMILE is kindly
meant that the
teacher should be an
excellent Supervisor,
Motivator, Initiator,
Leader, and
Entertainer in
performing his or her
daily obligation
qualified teacher.
Whereas the word
TEACHING implies
that in conducting his
or her duty, the
teacher has to
posses sophisticated
behaviors and
capabilities which
enabled them to
Train, Evaluate,
Harmonize, Initiate,
Negotiate, and Gain
the learning-
teaching process
Therefore, Love and
Smile Teaching is
basically meant to
provide the students
with wonderful
teacher and at the
same time the
students are kindly
hoped to enjoy the
process as they will
have loveable and
smiling teacher
every time they
attend their courses.
In this case, the
teachers and the
students will
establish good
partnership in their
process as their
teachers love
teaching and
students are
convinced to smile
whenever they
attend their lessons.
As mentioned in the
previous part of this
writing that the
objective of this
Love & Smile
Teaching is to
present interesting
and enjoyable
process. To
accomplish this, the
teachers and
students have to
follow a series of
steps as follows:
First : The teachers
and students need to
be well-prepared:
The teachers
should have
good teaching
skills, and
students should
be skillful in
They both
should have
good attitudes,
They should be
punctual any
time to attend
the class.
Second: The teachers
have to prepare and
manage their
materials as good as
possible, and the
students should not
hesitate to give
comments and ask
questions about the
materials if it is
The topic of
their materials
should be
adapted to the
allotted time.
Teachers can
modify them:
what and which
topics appropri
ate to be taught
in the morning,
at noon, in the
afternoon, or in
the evening?
The topics
should be
adapted to ages
of students. The
materials for
children and
adult learners of
Indonesian are
not the same,
even though
their abilities
may be similar.
The age
differences are
recognized for
the periods from
infancy to the
age of three,
from three to
five or six, from
five or six to
ten, and from
eleven to
thirteen (Piaget
in Lado, 1998).
The topics
should be
adapted to the
ability of the
students or
Generally, the
classification of
ability is (Pre-
Basic), Basic,
iate), Intermed
iate, (Pre-
Advanced), and
Before teaching,
teachers should
know their
ability or
level, so they
can choose the
topics for them.
The topics
should be
adapted to
cultural and
The teachers
cannot ignore
the influence of
cultural backgro
und of their
students. The
attitudes and
information of
the learners
affect their
learning of a
language. Most
of the Indonesi
an people have
difficulties in
learning English,
because of the
different forms
or patterns of
both languages.
“Post office”,
in Indonesian,
for example,
should be
pos” (not pos
kantor), (post =
pos; office =
kantor). In South
Sulawesi, some
people pronoun
ce the word
“very” with
Should the
students have
any comments
or questions
with regard to
the materials,
they should not
be reluctant to
point them out
during the
learning process.
Third : The teachers
need to alert their
students, and the
students should
The teachers
should advise
the students to
be ready and
available to
study before
they are kindly
The teachers
should motivate
their students
and improve
their ways of
learning, as well
as entice them
to happily keep
The teachers
should create
friendly and
casual classroo
m conditions in
order that the
students may
feel studying at
The students
should always
be ready and get
involve to
participate on
the learning-
It is essential for
good language
teaching to provide
ample participation
of the students in
meaningful language
use. The teachers let
the students to be
active in learning.
The teachers do not
only explain or
describe the
language and let the
students listen to it,
but they should
persuade or let the
students describe or
explain it
themselves. For
example, when the
students are learning
reported speech, the
teachers should give
them tasks of being
reporter or
interviewer. Let
them demonstrate
the task each other
where one of them
should be a speaker,
and the other acts as
reporters, and vice
It is essential in the
training that the
students are not the
object only, but they
are subject as well.
They should not be
passive learners.
They should
demonstrate their
good abilities. So, in
teaching Indonesian,
for example, the
teachers provide
“problem solving”
to stimulate the
students’ activities.
This method is called
learning by doing.
In teaching,
evaluation is a
reinforcement to
motivate students.
The students will
usually study hard
when they know
that their teachers
will give them
evaluation or a test.
In this case, the
teachers should be
aware that even
though the test
should not be given
to the students in
every meeting, but it
should be implicitly
implemented in
every session of the
teaching process.
The teachers should
let the students
know their works or
marks. By knowing
them, they will have
high motivation to
study hard. When
they find that their
grades are good,
they will keep trying
to be more
confident. Whereas,
the students whose
marks are bad, they
should then try to
improve them. In
short, the teachers
should have abilities
to motivate their
When the teachers
explain or describe
their teaching topics,
they should speak
clearly and present
simple but good
explanation to the
students. They
should abbreviate
their language or
explanation. A long
explanation is
usually found
ineffective to the
comprehensions. If
the teachers’
explanations are not
systematic, the
students will be
confused and they
are unable to
understand the
lesson well.
In order to make
systematic and
simple explanations,
the teachers should
prepare the scheme
of lessons.
The teachers should
concentrate to their
teaching topics. It is
very often to find
students ask
something that is
irrelevant to the
topic when the
teachers explain a
topic. If this case
happens, the
teachers should
have abilities to
modify their
teaching method to
return to the
discussing topic. It is
usual that several
teachers should
answer all the
students’ questions
as they wish. They
do not care that the
questions are
relevant or
irrelevant to the
discussing topic.
They think that they
will be a good
teacher when they
can answer all their
questions. In fact,
they are not good
A good teacher is the
one who is able to
harmonize the
classroom situation.
The teachers and
students should
have harmonious
interaction or
relationship in the
process). The
teachers should
enjoy their teaching
and the students
enjoy their learning.
This is called
In learning language,
the teachers should
let the students to
be relaxed, so they
will have bravery to
express their
opinions if they wish.
Let the students
have their own
creativities. The
teachers are not so
good, because they
will make their
students to be afraid
to express their
opinions. The
teachers will
probably make the
classroom situation
calm, but it is not
effective. The
permissive teachers
in the teaching-
learning process, in
contrary, are not so
good as well because
they will lead the
classroom in
situation. Therefore,
the good teachers
will be those who
can manage the
classroom situation
very well. They
should know when
they will be
authoritarian or
permissive teachers.
The teachers should
have abilities to
please the students
receive a new topic
with sophisticated
interests. Sometimes
the students are not
interested in finding
a new topic or lesson
on their learning
process due to their
inability to forget
their previous topics
or lessons. Changing
the topics to the
interested ones in
such situation is very
good, however, it
sometimes does not
easy. The teachers,
then, have to be
skilful at combining
new topics of
materials with the
students past
experience or
remembrances. The
teachers should keep
convincing them to
the new topics, but
still relevant to the
lesson plans, in order
to make them
interested. Overall,
the teachers should
prepare well their
lesson plans and
other components of
interaction, such as
teaching medium or
In the teaching
process, teachers
and students are
two basic
components. There is
no teaching without
learning process. It
means that no
teaching without
student, no teaching
without interaction.
So, as a teacher, he
or she should be a
director or manager
in the classroom. He
should be able to
manage all of the
components in the
classroom to support
their teaching
process. By this, it is
hoped that
interaction will be
running well. The
teachers are not
authoritarian ones,
but they should be
able to negotiate
with the students
about the lesson
schedules, materials,
and so on if they
The teaching-
learning process is
good when it can
provide effective
and efficient learning
activities. To
determine that the
process is successful,
the method or
procedure used
should not been seen
as the only
parameter. The most
wanted parameter is
the “outcomes.”
However, it cannot
be denied as well
that methods and
procedures are
important elements
to achieve “the
goal”. If the method
and procedures are
not good
(ineffective), of
course “the goal”
or “the outcomes”
will not be good
In Love & Smile
Teaching method, all
the processes
include methods and
procedures to
achieve “the
goal.” Goal is GAIN
The following are
characteristics of
- “The result” is
not temporal. The
students can use the
knowledge to
interact with others.
In learning language,
it is hoped that the
students can use or
utter the language
itself. Sometimes
some students can
speak when they are
learning, but they
will forget it after
- “The result” is
not only transfer of
knowledge but also
transfer of values.
From the whole
discussion above, it
can be concluded
that teaching and
learning are
reciprocal process
that cannot be
separated from each
other. Therefore, the
assessment point
deals with how well
the students are
learning and how
sophisticated a
teacher is teaching.
In other words, the
teachers love
teaching and the
students smilingly
enjoy studying.
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(2012). "Natural
Learning in Higher
Encyclopedia of the
Sciences of Learning.
2. DePorter, Bobbi, Mike
Hernacki. 1992.
Quantum Learning:
Unleashing The
Genius In You. New
York: Dell Publishing.
3. DePorter, Bobbi,
Mark Rearden &
Sarah Singer-Nourie.
1999. Quantum
Student Success.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
4. Goleman, Daniel.
1995. Emotional
Intelligence. United
States: Scientific
American Inc.
5. Hassard, Jack.
"Backup of
Meaningful Learning
Model". http://
Retrieved 30
November 2011.
6. Havigurst, Robert J.
1965. Society and
Education. Boston:
Allyn & Bacon Inc.
7. Lado, Robert. 1988.
Teaching English
Across Cultures. New
York: McGraw-Hill Inc.
8. Mackey, Lee Sandra,
Nancy H. Hornberger.
1996. Sociolinguistic
and Language
Teaching. United
Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press.
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Learning and
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Principles, Processes,
and Procedures.
Boston: Pearson
Education, Inc.

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Title : Contoh Makalah Bahasa Ingris
Description : Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris Berikut ini adalah posting tentang Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris dengan judul "LOVE AND SMILE TEAC...

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